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Sampling of Food & Feed

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Samplings of food and feed products are considered to be most important for any party involved in the supply chain. Samplings can be performed as per regulatory, standardized and/or contractual specifications. Such regulations might be given by national or international law, such as EU regulations and directives. Standardized methods might include, for example, ISO methods, or methods prescribed by certification programs such as GMP+. Contractual specifications for samplings are often given by international trade associations, such as GAFTA and FOSFA, both of which we are a recognized superintendent member and participant.

Sampling is one of the most difficult tasks related to inspection services. It requires a lot of expertise and the right apparatus. But most of all, theories of sampling and practical possibilities for sampling should come together in such a way that a sampling is representative of a lot at all times and at all places. This is particularly important for non-homogeneous commodities, such as cereals and oilseeds. Sampling can be done on static batches as well as moving cargoes, and this requires different instruments and approaches.

  • EU 401/2006

    Regulation EU 401/2006 is the European Commission’s regulation for the establishment of the European Union’s methods for sampling for the official control of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs, and has been amended and amplified by Regulation EU 519/2014. It describres principles of (increment) sampling and (sub-)sampling, depending on the packaging, quantity and other parameters, and is being used much for food cereals, like barley malt, and for example for groundnuts. For the sampling and determination of ergot sclerotia, the European Commission has developed a special Guidance for the control of ergot sclerotia, describing organoleptic analysis criteria, so as to correctly apply Regulation 1881/2006, which is the European Commission’s regulation setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs.

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  • 2002/63/EC

    Directive 2002/63/EC is the European Commission’s directive for the establishment of the European Union’s methods for sampling for the official control of pesticide residues in and on products of plant and animal origin. It describres principles of (increment) sampling and (sub-)sampling, depending on the packaging, quantity and other parameters, and is being used much for food cereals, vegetables and fruits, and for example for herbs and spices.

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  • EU 691/2013

    Regulation EU 691/2013 is the European Commission’s regulation for the establishment of the European Union’s methods for sampling for the official control of feed, as an amendment to Regulation EU 152/2009. It describres principles of (increment) sampling and (sub-)sampling, depending on the packaging, quantity and other parameters, and is being used much for feed cereals other feed raw materials.

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  • ISO | Food & Feed

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has elaborated numerous standards for the sampling and inspection of food and feed. ISO 24333:2009 describres methods for the sampling of cereals, both for static and dynamic samplings. ISO 21294:2017 describres methods for the sampling of oilseeds, and ISO 664:2008 describres methods for the preparation of laboratory samples of these oilseeds. Besides ISO, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) has elaborated quite some European norms, like CEN 15587:2019, describing methods for the determination of the level of impurities in cereals and cereal products, and including also methods for  the determination of levels of ergot in cereals.

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  • GMP+

    The GMP+ organisation has elaborated standards for the inspection of feed, including inspection methods for transport means and storage facilities and transshipment means for example. GMP+ B4.3 describes methods for inspection of inland barges and coasters, whereas methods for sampling of feed cereals and feed raw materials are given by GMP+ BA4, including a specific Aflatoxin B1 Protocol, and GMP+ BA13. Besides, the association SecureFeed, to which adhere quite a number of European feed industries, has elaborated specific sampling rules for the purpose of the control of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 in feed corn and feed corn products, in its standard I-08-03c.

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  • Incoterms | Food & Feed

    The International Commercial Terms (Incoterms) have been elaborated by the International Chamber of Commerce, as delivery standards for the international transport of goods. In case of which no (other) regulatory, standardized and/or contractual rules are given between a buyer and a seller, the trade custom rules of Incoterms might be applied. These rules may imply sealing of standard average samples of food and feed products, as per international trade custom.

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  • GAFTA

    The Grain and Feed Trade Association (GAFTA) has elaborated contract models for the trade of cereals and feed raw materials and ca. 80 % of the world grain trade is handled with GAFTA contracts. Specific rules for sampling of cereals and feed raw materials have been elaborated in GAFTA 124, prescribing methods for contractual sampling of batches and cargoes. Specific rules for weighing of batches and cargoes have been laid down in GAFTA 123.

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  • FOSFA

    The Federation of Oils, Seeds and Fats Associations (FOSFA) has elaborated contract models for the trade of (edible) oils and fats, oilseeds and groundnuts and ca. 85 % of the world oils and fats trade is handled with FOSFA contracts. Specific rules for sampling have been elaborated in the Contractual Methods of Sampling, prescribing methods for contractual sampling of batches as per ISO standards, like ISO 5555:2001 and ISO 661:2003 for oils and fats, ISO 21294:2017 and ISO 664:2008 for oilseeds and their derivates.

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  • DNV

    The German-Dutch Contracts (Deutsch-Niederländischen Verträgen) have been elaborated by Hamburger Getreidebörse, Koninklijke Vereniging Het Comité van Graanhandelaren and Synacomex and consist of contract models and sampling rules for the Dutch-German cereals and feed raw materials trade. Specific rules for sampling have been elaborated in the Probenahmebestimmungen zu den Deutsch-Niederländischen Verträgen Nr. 6 und 7.

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  • Einheitsbedingungen

    The Einheitsbedingungen im Deutschen Getreidehandel have been elaborated by the Deutschen Getreide- und Produktenbörsen and consists of a contract model, including sampling rules, for cereals traded in, into and from Germany. Specific paragraphs prescribe rules for both sampling and weighing.

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  • CNGD/HAFU

    The CNGD and HAFU documents have been elaborated by Koninklijke Vereniging Het Comité van Graanhandelaren and Verein der Getreidehändler der Hamburger Börse and consist of contract models, including sampling rules, for cereals and feed raw materials traded in, into and from The Netherlands and Germany.

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  • GZP

    The GZP document has been elaborated by Koninklijke Vereniging Het Comité van Graanhandelaren and consists of a contract model, including sampling rules, for cereals, (oil)seeds and pulses traded in The Netherlands.

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  • Incograin

    The Incograin contracts have been elaborated by the Syndicat de Paris du Commerce et des Industries des Grains, and consist of contract models and sampling rules for the French cereals, pulses and oilseeds trade. Specific rules for sampling have been elaborated in each specific contract.

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  • Ager

    The Ager contracts have been elaborated by the Association Granaria Emiliana Romagnola, and consist of contract models, including sampling rules, for the Italian cereals, pulses and oilseeds trade.

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  • Copenhagen

    The Copenhagen contracts have been elaborated by the Confederation of Danish Enterprise, and consist of contract models, including sampling rules, for the Danish and Scandinavian cereals, pulses and oilseeds trade.

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